My friend "G" helped her daughter purchase a used vehicle from Pappas Toyota in St. Peters, MO, but now suspects the dealer committed fraud. Although "G" gave me permission to tell her story as a teachable moment; I'm not using "G's" name or her daughter's because "G" is a law enforcement officer.
These teachable moments are offered to provide our readers with real-life case situations that provide facts and analysis and possible remedies for common legal situations.
Facts and Background
On Monday, February 20, 2023, "G" sent her 19-year-old daughter, "T", to Pappas Toyota to test drive a 2013 Nissan Pathfinder that "G" saw online. "G" was unable to go with her daughter because "G" was working an extreme amount of overtime at that point. "G," asked me to accompany her daughter because "T" was nervous to go by herself.
After the test drive, "T" and I sat down with the salesperson to discuss preliminaries, and after several phone calls back and forth to "G", "G" took over negotiations with the salesperson over the phone. "G" was assured over the phone by the salesperson that the Pathfinder had no known issues, had gone through an extensive vehicle inspection process, had been state inspected, was a solid vehicle, and should provide reliable and trouble-free transportation for some time. In fact, the dealer stayed fairly firm on the price because the vehicle was in exceptional condition. The Pathfinder was purchased on February 24th.
On or about March 27th, Pappas was called because the Pathfinder's engine light came on and the vehicle was shaking when driving 40 mph or higher. An appointment was set for April 4th, Pappas performed a diagnostic test and replaced the "Plenum Gasket, Ignition Coil, and spark plugs". Pappas assured "G" and "T" that this would solve the problem and they spent $726 for that service. A few days later, the engine light came back on and when "T" called Pappas to report it, the service department told her there was no problem and that the engine light just needed to be reset. Pappas told "T" to look in the owner's manual for instructions on how to reset the light.
On July 12th, the Pathfinder stalled on Halls Ferry near Lindbergh and had to be towed about two blocks to Ronsick Auto Care. They performed a diagnosis on July 13th and determined that the entire Catalytic Converter System had failed. They further explained that the system includes three Catalytic converters and that it takes a substantial amount of time for the entire system to fail. Since the system includes three catalytic converters, the estimate to replace including labor was over $5,000. When "G" explained that they had just purchased the vehicle in February, Ronsick's professional opinion was that the vehicle was sold with a bad catalytic converter system.
On Thursday, July 13th, "T", phoned the salesperson at Pappas Toyota who sold the vehicle and explained the situation, and asked if Pappas would fix or allow the Pathfinder to be exchanged for another vehicle but was told Pappas couldn't do anything since she hadn't purchased an extended warranty.
On Friday, July 14th, a letter was faxed to Pappas, detailing the information above and that "G" and "T" believed the Pathfinder's conditions were preexisting prior to their purchase. Fraud was suspected because as automotive experts, Pappas knew or should have known the actual condition of the Pathfinder but did not disclose and maybe even illegally reset the engine check light to conceal the defects.
G & T chose to purchase from Pappas because they believe it to be a reputable and honest business and they were trying to avoid running into this sort of situation from a disreputable used car dealer. They demanded that Pappas make them whole and repair the Pathfinder at no cost per the Missouri Merchandizing Practices Act RSMo 407.020 et al. The following was stated in the letter to Pappas:
"This is a good faith attempt to resolve this issue, however, If we do not hear from Pappas by 2 pm today, Friday, July 14th, we will take the following actions.
- My daughter, several of her friends, and family members are preparing an informational picket to take place on the public areas outside of Pappas Toyota.
- Complaints will be filed with the Missouri Attorney General's Office and published on social media and sites such as the Better Business Bureau, Yelp, Consumer Affairs, and others.
- A copy of this letter and a short press release will be sent to local media outlets.
Pappas Toyota Non-Responsive
G received no response from Pappas Toyota, since they didn't attempt to contact her, she filed complaints with the Missouri Attorney General's Office and several consumer complaint sites Friday evening. Because of the weather forecast, T canceled a planned information picket for Saturday, July 15th, however, she may reschedule later.
G is now researching and organizing documents and plans to file a small claims suit against Pappas Toyota. This page will be updated when additional information about the outcome is available.
Fraud and Lawsuit Analysis
In Missouri courts, small claims are limited to $5,000, see Missouri Rules for Small Claims Court and the Missouri Small Claims Court Handbook (PDF). According to the fee schedule for St. Charles Circuit Court, the filing fee will be $20.50. Because their claim is potentially greater than $5,000, G & T are also considering filing a standard civil lawsuit. RSMO 402.025 allows for possible reimbursement of attorney fees and punitive damages. If a civil vs small claims suit is filled, G & T will seek to recover the $729 spent in April for repairs, the cost to replace the catalytic converter system, lost time from work, car rental reimbursement, any other fees and cost associated with the action including attorney fees and punitive damages.
Missouri Revised Statute 400.2-314 provides an implied warranty of merchantability and the Missouri Supreme Court ruled in Herbert v. Harl, 757 SW 2d 585 that the statute applies to car dealers. A “warranty of merchantability” means the dealer promises the car will do what it's supposed to do: it will run. However, there are exclusions under RSMO 400.2-316, if the sales contract contains the term "as-is" the warranty of merchantability does not apply.
Pappas Toyota will most likely deny liability by stating that the vehicle was sold "as-is", however, that argument does not exempt them from liability under Missouri Merchandizing Practices Act RSMo 407.020 et al.
The Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Used Car Rule requires dealers to display a Buyers Guide in every used car they offer for sale and to give it to buyers after the sale. Pappas Toyota did not display a Buyers Guide when T and I test-drove the vehicle, however, they did have her sign one at the time of sale. Before and immediately after the test drive, I took several photos of the entire vehicle to record the condition and show to G, after reviewing those photos, I noticed there was no buyer's guide.
In the photo above, there is a sign in the building's window advertising Pappas Premium, which is a peace of mind pledge. The following statement appears on the PappasToyota.com Pappas Premium page, "A pre-owned vehicle from Pappas Toyota isn’t an ordinary used car. After passing a rigorous inspection and reconditioning process, it’s added to our lot with Pappas Premium, a nationwide 2-Year/100,000-Mile Limited Powertrain Warranty, with 24-Hour Roadside Assistance, One Year of Tire Hazard Protection, and more!" There is no disclaimer stating that some vehicles are excluded. Any reasonable person reading this statement would assume that this applies to all used vehicles sold at Pappas.
This assurance is one of the reasons G sent her daughter to Pappas. At the time of publication, T's 2013 Nissan Pathfinder according to CarFax has a retail value of $10,220, a private party value of $7,700, and a trade-in value of $4,400. Let's assume Pappas purchased the Pathfinder for around $4,700. The reason a customer would then respond to Pappas' advertised selling price of $10,700 is that it is expected that Pappas inspected and reconditioned the vehicle as stated in the Pappas Premium pledge. Otherwise, customers could simply purchase the vehicle from a private seller and save thousands of dollars.
Under the Missouri Merchandising Practices Act, false pretense, false promise, misrepresentation, unfair practice, or the concealment, suppression, or omission of any material fact in connection with the sale or advertisement of any merchandise in trade or commerce is an unlawful act. Pappas' salesperson mentioned how their used vehicles undergo an extensive inspection which matches with the Pappas Premium statement of a "rigorous inspection and reconditioning". A dealer has an affirmative duty to tell you certain “material facts” about a vehicle, whether or not you ask for them. This includes disclosing if a vehicle was a “lemon law” buyback, a prior rental, a prior salvage, or in an accident requiring major repair work such as frame or suspension damage.
Pappas Toyota is the expert here. It is reasonable to expect that if the vehicle needed to have the "Plenum Gasket, Ignition Coil, and spark plugs replaced, the "rigorous inspection" should have identified those issues prior to the sale. It is also reasonable that Pappas should have known that the catalytic converter system was bad. How many of the three catalytic converters have to fail before the engine light comes on?
According to Automotive Diagnostic Repair Help: "As a rule, when converter efficiency drops below 90 to 95 percent, it will set off a catalyst efficiency code. A vehicle with an illuminated Check Engine Light and ANY trouble codes will NOT pass an emissions check. A fouled converter may or may not cause an increase in backpressure, but eventually, it might if carbon starts to build in the honeycomb restricting the passageways. The important point to remember here is that converters don't just foul or plug up for no good reason. There is always an underlying cause which must be diagnosed and corrected before the problem can be eliminated. Identifying a plugged or fouled catalytic converter is only half the fix. Why? Because replacing a bad converter will only solve the current problem temporarily. If the underlying cause of the converter failure is not also diagnosed and repaired, sooner or later the new converter will likely suffer the same fate."
According to RepairSmith.com and several other sites, a vehicle normally can be driven indefinitely with a bad catalytic converter. A clogged catalytic converter can only prohibit you from driving your automobile in the most severe circumstances. According to PerformanceMuffler.net, "A failing car’s catalytic converter will create a significant backpressure that lowers your car’s engine performance. Whenever this happens, you will notice your car shaking frequently".
On February 15th, the date that Pappas Toyota performed the emissions inspection, the vehicle mileage was 143,287. On April 4th when Pappas performed the repairs, the mileage was 145,283. The mileage recorded by Ronsick on July 12 was 149,069. The Pathfinder was driven less than four thousand miles since Pappas supposedly took care of the vehicle’s issues.
When a small claims lawsuit is filed, the plaintiff (the person suing), bears the burden of proof and must convince a judge. This requires the plaintiff to put forth evidence in the form of witness testimony, documents, or objects. There are four elements that need to be proven to win a Missouri Merchandizing Practices Act suit.
- (1) the plaintiff purchased, or attempted to purchase, merchandise (which includes services) from a defendant in the state of Missouri;
- (2) the plaintiff’s purchase of, or attempt to purchase, merchandise (or services) was for personal, family, or household purposes;
- (3) the plaintiff suffered an ascertainable loss of money or property; and
- (4) the plaintiff’s ascertainable loss was a result of an action by a defendant that has been declared unlawful by § 407.020 RSMo.
In all likelihood, the condition of the plenum gasket, ignition coil, and spark plugs would have resulted in a check engine light prior to the sale. Additionally, since the catalytic converter was so bad that it failed just three months later indicates there were issues for a while even before G& T purchased it. Remember, even the mechanic that the car was towed to agrees that this was a preexisting condition, so why didn't Pappas catch this, was it fraud or negligence? Either way, it's a material fact that Pappas should have known that wasn't disclosed. However, a vehicle with a catalytic converter so bad that it causes the car to stall shouldn't have passed inspection in the first place which increases the likelihood fraud was involved. It's highly probable a judge will agree.
If you are a former or current employee of Pappas Toyota, a customer, or someone who has helpful information concerning this case contact us.
G contacted the St. Charles Circuit Court about filing the small claims suit against Pappas Toyota and was told that she must first send a certified demand letter to the registered agent. She visited the Missouri Secretary of State's office and search their records of business listings and discovered that Pappas Toyota is owned by North Motors Inc. and that Michael Pappas become the registered agent in March 2023, his father Thomas Pappas (the former registered agent), passed away the previous month. G sent her demand letter on Friday, July 21st.
On Monday, July 24th, G received an email from the Attorney General which included Pappas Toyota's response prepared by their attorney including three attached documents; "Retail buyer's order, buyer's guide, and a document declining extended service contract. Pappas' attorney as expected cited the sale as-is but also asserted the parties agreed to arbitration. Arbitration is a procedure in which a dispute is submitted, by agreement of the parties, to one or more arbitrators who make a binding decision on the dispute. In choosing arbitration, the parties opt for a private dispute resolution procedure instead of going to court.
The irony here is that Section (a) of the attached Pappas arbitration clause states; "The Federal Arbitration Act, not state law, shall govern the arbitration process and the question of whether a claim is subject to arbitration. The customer, however, retains the right to take any claim, controversy or dispute that qualifies to small claims court rather than arbitration." The Pappas Toyota arbitration clause itself allows for issues to be taken to small claims court instead of arbitration. The important lesson is to carefully read any document provided by the opposition or their attorney.
An arbitration clause in a contract is usually binding, however, the Missouri Supreme Court has ruled that such clauses cannot waive the protection provided by the Missouri Merchandising Practices Act (MMP). See Shaffer v. Royal Gate Dodge where the dealer tried to compel arbitration but the court ruled the arbitration clause unenforceable.
In the case of Huch v. Charter Communications, the Missouri Supreme Court stated the following often while citing other relevant cases:
"the public policy involved in Chapter 407 is so strong that parties will not be allowed to waive its benefits."
In short, Chapter 407[, the MPA,] is designed to regulate the marketplace to the advantage of those traditionally thought to have unequal bargaining power as well as those who may fall victim to unfair business practices. Having enacted paternalistic legislation designed to protect those that could not otherwise protect themselves, the Missouri legislature would not want the protections of Chapter 407 to be waived by those deemed in need of protection. Furthermore, the very fact that this legislation is paternalistic in nature indicates that it is fundamental policy: "a fundamental policy may be embodied in a statute which … is designed to protect a person against the oppressive use of superior bargaining power."
Likewise, in Whitney v. Alltel Communications, Inc., a contract provision requiring arbitration was found to be unconscionable because giving it effect would deny protections afforded by the merchandising practices act. 173 S.W.3d 300, 314 (Mo. App.2005). The court held that to allow companies to avoid the consumer protections established in the act "would effectively strip consumers of the protections afforded to them under the Merchandising Practices Act and unfairly allow companies… to insulate themselves from the consumer protection laws of this State." Id. "This result would be unconscionable and in direct conflict with the legislature's declared public policy as evidenced by the Merchandising Practices Act and similar statutes."
Car dealers are required by the FTC to post a Buyers Guide before they display a vehicle for sale or let a customer inspect it for the purpose of buying it, even if the car is not fully prepared for delivery. The Buyers Guide must be displayed prominently and conspicuously on or in a vehicle when a car is available for sale. This means it must be in plain view and both sides must be visible. You can hang the Guide from the rear-view mirror inside the car or on a side-view mirror outside the car. You also can place it under a windshield wiper. The Guide also can be attached to a side window. A Guide in a glove compartment, trunk, or under the seat is not conspicuous because it is not in plain sight. Since the vehicle did not have a visible buyer's guide when T and I test-drove the vehicle, that violation could also be considered an omission per the MMP.
G & T are both listed as purchasers, however, T was the only signer to the contract which contains the arbitration clause. G & T financed the vehicle at a bank that only G had an account with at the time. Even if the arbitration clause was valid, and was not barred from being invoked in cases involving the MMP, it could be argued that the clause does not apply to G since she never signed it but does have a protectable interest.
Florissant, MO 63031
July 21, 2023
President North Motors Inc.
D.B.A. Pappas Toyota
10011 Spenser Road
St. Peters, MO 63376
Dear Mr. Pappas,
This letter serves as a formal demand for payment of $5000, the partial cost to repair the prior damage that Pappas Toyota, knew or should have known existed before our purchase. Our claim is based upon the Missouri Merchandizing Practices Act, RSMo 407.020 et al, which applies even when merchandise is sold as-is.
I helped my 19-year-old daughter T purchase a 2013 Nissan Pathfinder from Pappas Toyota on February 24, 2023. We live in Florissant, however, the primary reason for choosing your business was the Pappas Premium pledge on your website; https://www.pappastoyota.com/pappas-premium/.
Unfortunately, a month later, we were forced to pay Pappas $729 for repairs which included the Plenum Gasket, Ignition Coil, and spark plugs. Those items should have been detected from the "rigorous inspection" you claim to perform on all used vehicles before being added to your lot.
A few days later, the engine light came back on and when Taylor called Pappas to report it, the service department told her there was no problem and that the engine light just needed to be reset. Pappas told Taylor to look in the owner's manual for instructions on how to reset the light.
Three months later, the entire catalytic converter system failed and the estimated cost to replace is $5,285, I have included a copy of the repair estimate with this letter. A second mechanic we consulted said it was nearly impossible that an inspection wouldn't have caught those issues. Both mechanics concluded the conditions existed before our purchase.
For more complete information about this claim, see the self-help legal blog that picked up our story: http://court.rchp.com/is-pappas-toyota-engaging-in-unethical-car-dealer-practices/
We have previously tried to resolve this matter, my daughter T contacted your salesperson D on Thursday, July 13th, I sent a fax to your manager, A on Friday, July 14th at 636-xxx-xxxx, and I sent an email to you on Monday, July 17th at, firstname.lastname@example.org. We lodged a complaint with the Missouri Attorney General, the Better Business Bureau, and others, however, as of the date of this letter, we have not received any response.
If we do not receive a full payment of $5,000 by August 4, 2023, we will have no choice but to file a claim in St. Charles small claims court. In lieu of payment, if arrangements are made by July 27th, we will allow Pappas the option to replace the catalytic converter system at their cost and provide us with the full Pappas Premium coverage as we no longer feel confident about the vehicle's condition when sold.
Since our total claim exceeds $5,000:
$5,285 – estimated catalytic converter system replacement and related work
+ $729 – cost of prior repair April 4th
+ $112 – daughter lost wages
We reserve the right to file a standard civil case where we would seek full restitution including filing fees, attorney fees, tow charges, additional lost wages all other associated cost, and punitive damages.
This letter fulfills the St. Charles Circuit Court requirement of sending a certified letter to the registered agent of the business prior to filing suit. You have 10 days to respond after receipt of this letter to respond.
Pappas Toyota responded to the Missouri Attorney General's office, but no one has reached out directly to G about her complaints. G contacted the Toyota Corporation to alert them about the questionable practices of their franchisee. In reply to Pappas Toyota's attorney's response to the Missouri Attorney General about her complaint, G sent the following:
Re: Complaint No. CC-2023-07-00xxx
Dear Ms. W:
After careful review of the Pappas response and exhibits, I'd like to point out the flaws and oversight. I've been a Deputy Juvenile Officer (DJO) in the City of St. Louis since 1996 and my deceased husband, M, was an attorney so I have some familiarity with the law.
Mr. K mistakenly stated our claims need to be arbitrated. Section 8(a) of Pappas Exhibit 1, states; "The Federal Arbitration Act, not state law, shall govern the arbitration process and the question of whether a claim is subject to arbitration. The customer, however, retains the right to take any claim, controversy or dispute that qualifies to small claims court rather than arbitration." Pappas' arbitration clause itself provides the authority to bypass arbitration and go to small claims court. However, the Missouri Supreme Court has ruled that such clauses cannot waive the protection provided by the Missouri Merchandising Practices Act (MMAP); see Shaffer v. Royal Gate Dodge, Inc., 300 SW 3d 556, where the dealer tried to compel arbitration but the court ruled the arbitration clause unenforceable.
Additionally, please note that both my name and my daughters' name appear as purchaser on Pappas Exhibit 1, however, only my daughter signed the agreement with the arbitration clause, therefore, I cannot be forced into arbitration. I would have preferred to accompany my daughter, however, I was working over 80 hours of overtime per pay period during that time leaving only a small window where we could both be present on February 24th. D, our Pappas salesperson, wasn't available during that window and informed me that I didn't need to be there to finalize the sale, but I was never informed about the arbitration clause or that the vehicle was sold as-is and not covered by the Pappas Premium pledge, Exhibit A. My negotiations with D were over the phone and by text and I didn't visit their location until after the deal was completed. The online advertisement for the Pathfinder did not mention it was as-is.
Car dealers are required by the FTC to post a Buyers Guide before they display a vehicle for sale or let a customer inspect it for the purpose of buying it, even if the car is not fully prepared for delivery. I was sent photos, Exhibit B, of the vehicle before and after the test drive which clearly shows there was no Buyers Guide. Please note that Pappas Exhibit 2 may have been signed by my 19 year old daughter if they presented it, but the Buyer's Guide certainly does not contain my signature.
The MMPA is designed to regulate the market place to the advantage of those traditionally thought to have unequal bargaining power, as well as those who may fall victim to unfair business practices. The Missouri legislature enacted paternalistic legislation to protect those consumers that could not otherwise protect themselves, signifying it would not want the protection of chapter 407 to be waived by those deemed in need of protection. This very fact indicates that it is a fundamental policy embodied in a statute which is designed to protect persons against the “oppressive use of superior bargaining power.” Huch v. Charter Communications. Inc., 290 S.W.3d 721, 726 (Mo.banc 2009). Therefore, the fact that my daughter signed the Buyer Guide does not exempt Pappas Toyota from their pledge.
We raised fraud issues in our complaint, so the Pappas attorney's correspondence does not fully resolve this matter. We hope that the AG's office may provide assistance, however, we are fully prepared to file suit in St. Charles Circuit Court if it cannot. The secondary nature of our AG complaint was to notify this office of possible fraud and to prevent Pappas from making false statements on their website concerning the Pappas Premium and "rigorous inspections" and then using the "As-Is" sale, arbitration, and declining to purchase an extended service contract to bypass and insulate themselves from the consumer protection laws of this State.
I am attaching a copy of the Pappas Premium Pre-Owned Peace of Mind pledge from their website. Please note there is no disclaimer stating that some vehicles are not covered. This pledge would mislead any reasonable consumer into thinking all used vehicles sold by Pappas are covered. Several mechanics have explained that the vehicle we purchased shouldn't have passed a basic state inspection and that any sort of "rigorous inspection" certainly should have identified the issues we faced in March and then July.
The 2013 Nissan Pathfinder we purchased was advertised for $10,700 on the Pappas Toyota website. The price was negotiated down to $10,000, however, I refused to pay a $499 administrative fee. That fee was then subtracted from the sales price to equal the original $10,000 agreed upon. We were charged $759 in March for repairs, Exhibit C, and now face another $5,285 for the catalytic converter system, Exhibit D. The total of these repairs is more than 60 percent of the purchase price for a vehicle according to the, Pappas Pledge "is like no other used car". It is illegal for a car dealer to sell a vehicle with a failing emissions system.
As part of my investigation and research, I pulled the Pathfinder's CarFax Report, Exhibit E. Please note that spark plugs and the ignition system was serviced on 11-06-2019 and the Plenum gasket was replaced on 09-21-2021. Keep in mind that the Plenum gasket, ignition coil, and spark plugs were replaced in April 2023 by Pappas Toyota. The CarFax report states that Pappas performed an emission inspection on 2-8-2023, however, the actual inspection certificate is dated 2-15-2023, Exhibit F. Did the Pathfinder fail inspection on the 8th? Further indication the Pappas emission certificate might be fraudulent. The Pappas Toyota website states they are a 2022 CarFax Top-Rated Dealer. It's reasonable to expect they would use the CarFax report as a guide to look for possible issues.
According to WheelsJoint.com, the Nissan Pathfinder ignition coils are responsible for amplifying the relatively low battery voltage from 12V to a high voltage of tens of thousands of volts for the spark plugs. Driving a Pathfinder with bad ignition coils can damage the engine or the catalytic converter.
According to RepairPal.com, the Plenum Gasket, also known as the intake manifold gasket on a Nissan Pathfinder is designed to last the life of the vehicle, but often it will be replaced when doing related engine repairs in order to prevent problems with it down the road. YourMechanic.com states, " The principal concern with a leaking intake manifold gasket is potential damage to the engine, depending on where the leak is. …. If the leak involves coolant, it could lead to engine overheating damage or the coolant could contaminate the engine oil, which can damage the engine bearings. If there is an air leak to the cylinders, it can cause lean operation which could overheat the catalytic converter."
On 1-10-2023, Pappas Toyota performed recommended maintenance including changing tires and an oil change. They performed an emissions inspection on Feb. 8th or 15th, however, no other inspections are mentioned. A condition of our purchase was the touch ups of noticeable paint chips and scratches which is most likely the service that was performed on 2-21-2023.
Sections 407.020 and 407.025 provide four elements to a MMPA claim: (1) the use or employment of a “deception, fraud, false pretense, false promise, misrepresentation, unfair practice or the concealment, suppression or omission of any material fact,” (2) the unlawful act must occur in connection with the sale or advertisement of merchandise, (3) the unlawful act must result in an ascertainable loss of money or real or personal property, and (4) the loss must occur to a person who purchases or leases merchandise primarily for personal, family or household purposes.
The Pappas Premium pledge in our case is an obvious false promise, then the fact there was no Buyer's Guide which was a concealment, suppression, or omission of a material fact, a major repair one month after purchase and then the complete failure of the catalytic converter system three months later in consideration of the facts above by any reasonable standard satisfies an action under MMAP.
A quick scan of Pappas Toyota's BBB file tells me we're not their first victim, but hopefully, we'll be their last. Proof of intent can be shown by circumstantial evidence. See Rice v. Lammers, 65 S.W.2d 151 (Mo. App. 1933). And silence or concealment is actionable on a showing of the seller’s superior knowledge or the seller giving partial information. In Hess v. Chase Manhattan Bank, USA, NA, 220 SW 3d 758 the Court held that the admission or concealment of material facts under the MMPA required less proof than what was required to prove comparable elements of common law fraud.
As a DJO, sadly, I must enforce the law on children as young as 10 years old, sometimes for minor offenses as low as $10, often motivated by great need. Hopefully, your office will hold grown men to account for thousands of dollars stolen by fraud and motivated by great greed!
Attached are the following:
- Printout of the Pappas Premium Pledge from their website
- Photos of Pathfinder on the Pappas Toyota lot
- Pappas Toyota repair receipt
- Ronsick catalytic converter repair estimate
- 2013 Nissan Pathfinder CarFax report
- Emissions inspection report by Pappas Toyota